The Internet technology as a digital communication medium enhances the capability of GIS data and software application by making them more accessible and reachable to wider range of users, planners and decision makers. Internet is emerging as a perfect means of GIS data accessing, analyzing and transmission. Advanced GIS work is influenced significantly by the high computing capabilities and advanced visualization system using latest state-of-art of information and communication technologies. The Integration of GIS and Internet technology has revolutionize the use and range of geo-spatial data and its applications in planning and implementation of strategies for a wide range of applications. The combination of GIS and Internet offers great possibilities, such as the interactive access to geospatial data, real time data integrations and transmission, enhancement of the functions of geographic information, and the access to platform independent GIS analysis tools. Today the GIS based web portals provides a centralized and uniform interface to access the distributed and heterogeneous resources and data services.
Internet has facilitated five major changes in GIS: (1) Online access the data for query and visualization; (2) Sharing and distribution of data; (3) GIS Data analysis and processing; (4) Online transaction processing of data; and (5) linking of real/near-real time data. The most important advantage of this technology is “dynamic” nature of GIS.
In geospatial domain web services are very important to achieve interoperability in data and information available with different data providers. Today, the geospatial services available in internet through various geo-portals are increasing rapidly. There is a need of methodology to locate desired services that provide access, data discovery and analysis capabilities for geospatial data. The interoperability of services across organizations and providers is important for seamless integration and sharing of spatial data from a variety of sources. Different organizations and commercial vendors develop their own data standards and storage structures for geo-spatial data. If GIS services are not interoperable, these data sets cannot interact or overlaid to each other even though they are in the same organization or they belong to same commercial vendor. To solve the interoperability problems in GIS, the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) has introduced data and service standards by publishing specifications for the GIS services. OGC is a not-for-profit, international, voluntary, consensus standards organization founded in 1994. The major objectives of OGC are to lead in the development, promotion and harmonization of open geospatial standards. The GIS service specifications developed by the OGC are based on SOA. Such systems unify distributed services through a message-oriented architecture.
Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS) is one of leading organization working in the field web based geoformation systems and services. The Institute has developed its first web based GIS application in year 2001 under joint project of Department of Biotechnology and Department of Space, Government of India. Two of the popular Geo-web services hosted by IIRS are :
- Biodiversity Information System (BIS)
National Biodiversity Characterization at Landscape Level, a project jointly executed by Department of Biotechnology and Department of Space, was implemented to identify and map the potential biodiversity rich areas in India. This project has generated spatial information at three levels viz. Satellite based primary information (Vegetation Type map, spatial locations of road & village, Fire occurrence); geospatially derived or modeled information (Disturbance Index, Fragmentation, Biological Richness) and geospatially referenced field samples plots. This relatively large spatial information on the above-mentioned facets of biodiversity has been organized in a web based Biodiversity Information System (BIS) (http://bis.iirs.gov.in) for prioritization, conservation and bio-prospecting.
The spatial data available in BIS web portal is as following:
- Spatial Data on 1:50,000 scale for entire India
- Vegetation Type map
- Fragmentation map
- Disturbance Index map an
- Biological Richness map
- Species Database: Phytosociological database for 16,000+ sample plots for entire India
The portal provides information of high disturbance and high biological richness areas which are suggesting future management strategies and formulating action plans. The BIS web portal provides data and information services under two major categories i.e. ‘Biodiversity Spatial Viewer’ and “Data Download.’. The Biodiversity spatial viewer provides the utility to visualize all the spatial maps available in the BIS portal along with many base layers and administrative boundaries. The data is available in original scale. The WMS and WFS based quires are available which can generate many user defined map outputs. The portal also integrates the satellite data from Bhuvan geo-portal as background image directly accessed as WMS layer from Bhuvan geo-portal.
Figure8 – Biodiversity spatial viewer of BIS- http://bis.iirs.gov.in
Figure9 – Data download and online analysis - http://bis.iirs.gov.in
Figure10 – Data download and online analysis - http://bis.iirs.gov.in
Figure11 – Data download and online analysis - http://bis.iirs.gov.in
Many unique features are available in biodiversity spatial viewer like overlay of local and remote maps through WMS URL, layer swiping utility for maps, WFS based query builder and filter utility etc. In addition to spatial data viewer BIS web portal also provide a data download utility in public domain. All the biodiversity data sets available in this website are freely downloadable through data download section. The user can define an Area of Interest (AOI) and select the map layer to download. The data download application will extract the data online and generate a quick data analysis report in real time mode.
The online data extraction and analysis for raster data are some of the unique features of Biodiversity Information System. This web portal is hosted at Indian Institute of Remote Sensing (IIRS), ISRO Dehradun India
For more details please visit- http://bis.iirs.gov.in
- Spatial Data on 1:50,000 scale for entire India
- Indian Bioresource Information Network (IBIN)
Indian Bioresource Information Network (IBIN) (www.ibin.gov.in) is developed as a distributed national infrastructure to serve relevant information on diverse range of issues of bio-resources of India. IBIN web portal aims to offer a platform for all the data holders in the country to host their data at the same time maintaining their ownership on it. Its major goal is to network and promote an open ended, co- evolutionary growth among all the digital databases related to biological resources of the country and to add value to the databases by integration. IBIN portal provides platform to the diverse data providers in a mutually sharable environment with full ownership protocols. It aims at expanding the IBIN program through:
- Creation of an inter-communicating network of databases,
- Promoting an open ended and collaborative growth of participant digital databases and,
- Serving value added information on issues related to biological diversity and associated knowledge in multiple languages.
Data and information available in IBIN portal can be categories in two major categories:
- Spatial Data Sets: Under this category the maps generated in various projects on Bio-resources of India are hosted. The spatial data is available is an interactive map viewer with various queries and services developed on top of OGC web service specifications. The spatial data node provides access to primarily spatial data services. The browsing of different spatial and species data services is through biodiversity metadata catalogue.
- Species Data Sets: The species data is an attribute data available from various sources and different categories including plants, animals, microbes etc. Based on a common but flexible and indigenously developed inputting system, information was compiled from secondary sources. Suitable querying and outputting systems are also developed to retrieve different linkages among these databases. The data size of the compiled databases of all the groups till date accounts to about 6.8 GB on 39,000 species with 82,00,000 records.
Figure10 - IBIN spatial node- www.ibin.gov.in
Figure11 - Metadata catalogue of IBIN geo-portal- www.ibin.gov.in
One of the unique feature of IBIN web portal is availability of different types of data related to Indian bio-resources in a single window. The spatial data is also available as a GIS data catalogue which allows various data search mechanism with good documentation in standard national framework.
For more details please visit- www.ibin.gov.in